Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Essay Paper Queen Elizabeth I Example For Students

Essay Paper Queen Elizabeth I Queen Elizabeth, the first, proved to be a very good and loyal monarch to England. She brought about many changes, both good and bad. On September 7, 1533 a baby girl came into the world. Back then many parents would have been greatly disappointed to have had a baby girl, rather then a boy. However these parents were glad by the birth of their first child together. These proud parents were the king and queen of England, King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. The girl child was named Elizabeth. The only reason for the birth of Elizabeth had been that she would have been male so that he could have been the heir to King Henry the VIII. It wasn’t until two years later that Henry realized he wasn’t going to get a healthy male heir from Anne Boleyn. She had miscarried twice before delivering a stillborn son. When Elizabeth was two her father had her mother beheaded for adultery and treason, this was just a way to rid himself of her rather then get a divorce. This was not Henry’s first wife; this was his second wife. His first wife had also born him a female child. He had divorced her in hopes that he would get an heir from Anne. With his first wife, Catherine, he had a daughter, which they named Mary. Between the time of Elizabeth’s mothers death and 1537 Henry married yet again. The woman was named Jane Seymour and she cared greatly for Elizabeth. She forced Henry to take Elizabeth back into the house, as it was, Elizabeth had been sent away for schooling and whatnot. In 1537 Elizabeth’s new stepmother, Jane Seymour, gave birth to a son, the birth of this son however brought about the death of Jane from bed fever. The child was named Edward. Once Edward had been born Elizabeth faded into the background, everyday receiving less and less attention. From the time Edward was born Elizabeth spent a lot of time with him. Growing up they were very close, they spent all of their spare time together. The only real time that the two of them were apart was when it came to schooling. She received her education under the famous scholar and humanist Roger Ascham. Under his guidance, Elizabeth studied Greek and Roman classics, read history and theology, and learned both classical and modern languages. She was considered extremely intelligent, and records say that, in her youth, she spoke six languages. In 1547 Henry VIII died. At the age of fourteen Edward became King Edward VI. He died only six short years later. Elizabeth’s older half-sister, Mary Tudor came to the throne. Mary, who was Catholic, earned the nickname Bloody Mary. During the time that Bloody Mary was at the throne she married Philip of Spain, soon to be Philip the second. However Parliament blocked his accession to the English throne. She burned many Protestants at the stake. When rebels wanted to place Elizabeth on the throne Queen Mary had her arrested and sent to the Tower of London and later on to Woodstock. She remained imprisoned for five years until Mary, near death, named Elizabeth her successor. On March 17, 1558, the last Tudor monarch of England ascended the throne. Elizabeth initially did not want to face the heated conflict between the Catholics and Protestants in England. However Mary Stuart forced her to. The Catholic Mary, queen of Scotland, was the grandniece of Henry VIII and the next in line to the throne. Accused of murdering her second husband, Henry Stuart Darnley, Mary fled to England to escape a rebellion in Scotland. Many European and English Catholics plotted to put her on the throne. To protect her crown, Elizabeth had her cousin Mary Placed under house arrest in 1567. Meanwhile, Elizabeth’s throne was threatened from the outside forces. Philip II, who became ruler of Spain and its empire in 1556, sought to control the world. England and many other European countries were jealous of Spain’s riches, especially in the New World. .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 , .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .postImageUrl , .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 , .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1:hover , .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1:visited , .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1:active { border:0!important; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1:active , .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1 .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5f323d463f981710e3d2ce7197a2acd1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Cultural Anthropology EssayElizabeth allowed her seamen to raid Spanish ships on the high seas. Between 1557 and 1580, Francis Drake sailed around the world, becoming the first man, after Francis Magellan to do so. On his trip he ravaged Spanish settlements in South America, returning to England with 1,000,000 in treasure. Elizabeth knighted him aboard his ship, the Golden Hind, worsening already tense relations between Protestants England and catholic Spain. During the 1580’s, Elizabeth began to harshly persecute Catholics in England. She sent hundreds to their deaths. Many felt the horrors of the wrack, the manacles, and the Scavenger’s daughter. The Scavenger’s Daughter was an iron hoop that brought a victim’s hands, head, and feet together into a tight ball until he or she was crushed. One of the reasons for the persecutions was a series of Catholic plots to murder Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. Finally, in 1586, Mary’s part in these plots were proven and she was beheaded the following February. Mary’s death was the final blow to the English- Spanish relations. Philip II declared war. In July 1588, a huge navy fleet, the Spanish Armada, set sail for England. The English navy led by Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher, rose to meet the armada in a nine- day battle. The smaller, quicker English ships easily outmaneuvered the Spanish galleons, but could not move close enough to attack. The Spaniards, however, made the mistake one night of anchoring their entire fleet, and the English sent a squadron of flaming ships into the anchored vessels. Scared, the armada cut it’s lines and fled to open waters. Chased by the English the Spanish tried to sail north around the British Isles. However storm after storm pounded the armada and about half the fleet was lost. Their war continued for fifteen years. The Spaniards could not overcome the English. Elizabeth’s reign after the defeat of the armada was beset by troubles. Her control over her country’s religious, political, and economic problem’s, as well as her presentation of herself, began to show severe strains. Bad harvests, inflation, and unemployment caused by the loss of public morale. Corruption and greed led to wide spread popular hatred for Elizabeth’s favorites, to whom she had given lucrative and much resented monopolies. By the turn of the century, even her admirers, such as Sir Walter Raleigh, said she was a lady surprised by time. Queen Elizabeth had never married and had never born any children this brought about the nicknames such as Good Queen Bess, and The Virgin Queen. Oftentimes poets compared her to the Moon Goddess, to a Virgin and Fertility Goddess, the bringer of justice, and the cornerstone of the Empire. Painters portrayed her in impossible magnificence and with the symbols of peace, virtue, majesty, and truth. During Elizabeth’s reign there was a boom of the arts that would be impossible for almost any other period of English history to match. Edmund Spencer, Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, and Ben Johnson are great names not only in English literature, but also in World literature. The English Renaissance was a highlight that appeared bloody, dark, and dreary. Elizabeth’s reign was and still is sometimes referred to as the Elizabethan Period. Shortly before Queen Elizabeth died on March 24, 1603, she designated James VI of Scotland as her successor.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Strategic Planning for Community Building

Introduction A large number of taxpayers, not only in South Carolina but also in other parts of the world have the right to be made aware of the benefits they would obtain through entrusting their governments with huge amounts of money paid as tax. The government of South Carolina has been carrying out awareness campaigns to let people know that millions of dollars collected as tax go into proper use.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Strategic Planning for Community Building specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evidently, every sector concerned with the welfare of the people gets a significant proportion of money for developmental purposes. The education sector is one of the sectors that have greatly benefited from government funding. The residents of South Carolina are not confident that their taxes go into good use. This is despite the government clarifying that it is fully accountable for every single cent collec ted as tax goes put into proper use. Strategic Planning for Community Building Numerous studies have been carried out to determine whether tax collected from the people is used for national development or not. A study carried out by Barron et al (2005), entitled â€Å"The economic impact of public libraries on South Carolina† for instance, was aimed at determining whether public libraries present any tangible benefits to South Carolinians. This study was also aimed at determining the extent to which these people feel that public libraries contribute to their general economic wellbeing. Whereas some people argue that establishment of public libraries is an inappropriate use of public funds, it is important to note that a large number of people have greatly benefited from these national facilities. The study by Barron et al (2005) utilized data obtained from different people with reference to the general use of public libraries, the use of libraries for business purposes, the u se of public libraries for personal investments, in addition to their use for job seeking in order to come up with an unbiased conclusion. It was argued that a large number of those who made use of public libraries had positive perceptions towards these facilities. Many people agree that the benefits public libraries present to members of their families cannot be compared to any other social service. This study was necessitated by claims by the American Library Association that those working in public libraries were not providing users with quality services. The principal aim of this study was bringing to light the importance of all relevant parties demonstrating continued interest and also commitment to the public libraries. This issue is of national interest since it offers students and the public at large an opportunity to take part in meaningful scholarship that besides being of personal interest enables students to participate in public services (Hopper, 2012).Advertising Looking for article on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the positive perceptions of many towards libraries, some people still argue that these facilities are only meant to benefit a few and, therefore, cannot be categorized as economically viable strategies. It is, however, important to note that a good measure of value for any service is obtained only by those who make use of it. Some of the benefits associated with public libraries, as outlined by Barron et al (2005), include: Improvement of the quality of life, attraction of new businesses to the community, nurturing love for reading among the people, assisting people to manage personal finances, increasing local property value, and attracting patronage to local investments. This is in addition to enhancing personal fulfillment. These facilities have also been shown to act as a source of employment. They are also believed to introduce users to novel technologies and assist them with life-long learning among others. Respondents in the study by Barron et al (2005) made it clear that monetary value cannot be placed on life-long learning, and information obtained from various sources in the library play a significant role of promoting a healthy, as well as a vibrant community. Despite some people arguing that libraries are not economically viable, it should be noted that the establishment of these facilities falls under some of the government strategies directed towards benefiting the general community. The government aims at reducing knowledge gap that exists between the people through the establishment of public libraries. Public libraries act as channel through which the rift between elites and the local people can be bridged so as to fulfill the government’s principal aim of enhancing the local people’s intellectual capacity (Stueart Moran, 2007). It should be noted that the local people face a great deal of cha llenges, some of which include: Poverty, crime, ethnic crisis, and educational challenges. These challenges call for solid solutions to manage them. These challenges are believed to dominate the local problem solving plans. A number of social and economic factors have been shown to hamper the efforts to generate practical solutions to these problems (Nelson, 2009). The establishment of a public library has been recognized by many, including academicians, as a practical way through which most of these challenges can be counteracted. The people become empowered through increasing their intellectual capacity, and as a result, they are able to generate solid solutions to most of their problems (Gardner et al. 2000).Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Strategic Planning for Community Building specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Establishment of a public library acts as an approach which, if combined with others, can offe r a strong building block when putting up a novel model of community democracy. It has been revealed that a substantial number of businesspeople who have access to information in public libraries agree to having recorded huge successes in their ventures (McClure Jaeger, 2009). Construction of public libraries in many countries has been recognized as one of the major government ventures, which translates to proper utilization of taxes. These facilities are believed to have the potential to enhance economic growth of individuals and also the nation. Investors make clear that information on almost 90% of all investments made in a certain region is obtained from public libraries (Barron et al 2005). It is supposed that information from public libraries enable people to come up with economically viable decisions. In addition, it should be noted that a large number of people do not have the financial capacity to purchase some of the most important books in the market. Most of these books are availed at an affordable charge in the libraries. It is approximated that users spend over $100 million to purchase intellectual materials. Research has revealed that this cost can be reduced to about 26$ million by establishing a public library. Therefore, public libraries provide people with an affordable means through which they can acquire relevant information (Barron et al 2005). Even though a large amount of money is used to establish and fully equip a public library, financial resources that can be earned as a service charge from these facilities exceed the cost of establishment by far. Public libraries have been shown to have the capacity to generate over $5 million dollars per year as service charges. It is no doubt that the benefits generated from public libraries can be enjoyed by generations to come. Regardless of such a fact, some people are still opposed to the establishment of a public library, arguing that such an initiative does not benefit all groups of people compared to other social and academic activities (Nelson, Altman Mayo, 2000). The initiative to establish a public library is a well thought out strategy that calls for the participation of a large number of stakeholders. It is a strategy that, in addition to incorporating feedback from diverse segments of the community, has quantifiable objectives and is realistic for the entire nation (Hawkins et al. 2001).Advertising Looking for article on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Establishment of a public library is an extensive process that calls for efforts from different players. Peer reviewers, for instance, in addition to working in collaboration with the directors as well as the people, carry out assessments of the plan and the process by looking at any relevant data. Reviewers, on the other hand, request for more information concerning various sections of the plan to determine whether it meets the stipulated guidelines. Assessments are also carried out to determine whether the principal objectives of the plan stretch library services over the future. Therefore, arguments by some sections of society that transforming a community building into a public library are misguided and do not have a solid base. Public libraries, on the contrary, have been shown to enhance the schooling efforts of a large number of people. Large numbers of retirees and those who study at home rely on public libraries for information (Marco, 2011). Strategic planning for a commun ity building should not be left to a group of people, but rather it should be taken as a responsibility of all pertinent parties. The team involved should come up with a logical, as well as relevant plan for the building. The board should ensure that the interest of stakeholders is represented and the course for the library is steered to successful completion (Webber Peters, 2010). Albeit establishment of a public library being an effective strategy through which social and economic challenges that emanate from misguided decisions can be solved, it is not a bullet solution to all community problems. Firstly, it requires allocation of a large amount of money. It is argued that it may take many years before the community starts reaping the benefits associated with a public library (Matthews, 2005). Some people also argue that other means can be made use of to counteract environmental challenges, dysfunctional politics and efficiently address local maladies in place of public librarie s. These people point out that there is need for all sectors of the community to work in harmony towards a common goal. It has also been argued that considering public libraries have a budget to adhere to, their selection on resources becomes limited. There are higher chances of public libraries becoming victims of censorship. Some resources in the library may be banned if they contain sections with a higher possibility of creating controversy compared to other materials (Nelson, 2008). Since the tax is the main source of support for these facilities, they are left with no choice but to yield to these controversies. It can, however, be concluded that that strategy to transform a public building into a public library is an economically viable approach. Public libraries have the potential to enhance the intellectual capacity of the people, thereby increasing their ability to make rational economic decisions. References Barron, D. R. et al. (2005). The economic impact of public librari es on South Carolina. Web. Gardner, J. W. et al. (2000). The community commissioning and strategic planning handbook, New York, NY: National Civic League Press. Hawkins, M. et al. (2001). Value and use of public libraries. Public Library Journal, 16(2), 35-37. Hopper, L. (2012). Sustainable public libraries. Web. Marco, G. A. (2011). The American public library handbook. Santa Barbara: California, ABC-CLIO. Matthews, J. R. (2005). Strategic planning and management for library managers. Mahwah, NJ: Libraries Unlimited. McClure, C. R. Jaeger, P. T. (2009). Public libraries and internet service roles: Measuring and maximizing internet services. New York, NY: ALA Editions. Nelson, S. (2008). Strategic planning for results. Chicago: American Library Association, 2008. For the Public Library Association. Nelson, S. (2009). Implementing for results: Your strategic plan in action. New York, NY: ALA Editions. Nelson, S. S., Altman, E. Mayo, D. (2000). Managing for results: Effective resour ce allocation for public libraries. New York, NY: ALA Editions. Stueart, R. D. Moran B. B. (2007). Library and information center management. Mahwah, NJ: Libraries Unlimited. Webber, D. Peters, A. (2010). Integrated library systems: Planning, selecting, and implementing. Santa Barbara: California, ABC-CLIO. This article on Strategic Planning for Community Building was written and submitted by user Yuliana O. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

ACT Test Dates 2017-2018

ACT Test Dates 2017-2018 SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips At PrepScholar, we are committed to keeping you informed about future test dates. Knowing the registration and test dates well in advance can help you create your study plan and keep you organized so that you can minimize your stress and reach your target score. In this article, I’ll give you the ACT test dates for 2017-2018 and explain the factors to think about when selecting your test date. ACT Test Dates for 2017-2018 These are the official test dates and registration deadlines for 2017-2018, as well as our estimated score release dates. Test Date Deadline Late Deadline Score Release* Sept 9, 2017 Aug 4, 2017 Aug 18, 2017 Sept 10; Oct 3, 2017 Oct 28, 2017 Sept 22, 2017 Oct 6, 2017 Nov 7; Nov 21, 2017 Dec 9, 2017 Nov 3, 2017 Nov 17, 2017 Dec 19; Jan 2, 2018 Feb 10, 2018 Jan 12, 2018 Jan 19, 2018 Feb 2; Mar 6, 2018 Apr 14, 2018 Mar 9, 2018 Mar 23, 2018 Apr 24; May 8, 2018 June 9, 2018 May 4, 2018 May 18, 2018 June 19; July 3, 2018 July 14, 2018 June 15, 2018 June 22, 2018 July 24; Aug 7, 2018 *= Refers to online score release. The first date is when multiple-choice scores come out, and the second one is when complete scores are available. How Accurate Is the Table Above? The dates above have been confirmed by the ACT, and it's highly unlikely that they'll be changed.The score release dates are estimates, but they should be within a week of the projected dates. Keep in mind that there's some variance when multiple-choice scores come out and not everyone receives them at the same time. How to Choose Your Test Date Below are some of the major factors to consider when selecting your ACT test date. #1: What Deadlines Do You Need to Make? Remember to take your ACT before any deadlines. If you apply regular decision, the December test in your senior year will be the last test you can take for most colleges. If you apply early, the last test you can take may be in October or November of your senior year. Also, if you want to obtain any scholarships that consider your ACT score, you’ll need to have your test score before the scholarship deadlines. #2: How Many Times Do You Want to Take the ACT? Most students raise their scores when they retake the ACT; give yourself an opportunity to take the test multiple times. Generally, we suggest first taking the ACT in the fall of your junior year. Then you can retake it in the spring of your junior year and the fall of your senior year if necessary. #3: How Long Do You Plan to Study? When choosing your test date, give yourself ample time to prepare. Figure out how long you’ll need to study and make sure you’ll be able to adequately prepare before you take the test. If you take both the September and October tests without doing any studying in between, your score probably won’t improve much. #4: Do You Have Conflicts With Any Test Dates? Check to see if you have any potential conflicts on or around any of the ACT test dates. Perhaps the December date is on the same day as your science fair. Maybe you want to avoid the April test date because you’ll be in the middle of baseball season. Even if it's challenging to find a time when you can fully dedicate yourself to the ACT, you should try to pick the best test dates for you. What's Next? Check out this article for everything you need to know about ACT prep. To help you with your ACT studying, find out the best ACT prep books. Finally, figure out if you should take the ACT with or without Writing. Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

6

6 Introduction Some of the most interesting aspects of child development are the biosocial, cognitive and psychological development.Reading these aspects can be interesting, especially if you have a child who is still developing. In order to understand these aspects fully, scientists have come up with numerous theories to explain the development stages right from birth to adulthood.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on 6-year-old childs biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although some people have widely criticized some of the theories, the truth of the matter is they address the various development stages we take the general based model to address the biosocial, cognitive, and psychological development of a six-year-old child. In trying to address these three paramount issues, the paper takes note of the extensive variations in what very many child development experts con sider as â€Å"normal†. Some of the factors behind child development include family, cognitive, educational, and genetic. Depending on the suitability of these factors, children will reach certain stages at different times. However, this paper discusses development stages of a normal six-year-old child. This is simply because every child is unique and therefore, the development stages can vary with time and other factors (Rollercoaster, 2012, p.1). Six-year-old child In very many developed countries, six-year-old kids are conversant with school and kindergarten related activities. In other words, a child develops aggression towards independence in this year. However, the idea to separate from their parents is not something that they are in apposition to do no matter how independent they want to be. These kids are taking steps towards discovering the world they found themselves in some years ago. The truth of the matter is that not all six-year-old children share similar abili ties and development traits. They can actually vary form one child to another due to their uniqueness. At this age, the kids have different preferences, experiences, and each one of them is capable of things in certain ways. This is the reason why their abilities are not the same. Although each kid is unique, we assume a general milestone in addressing the similarities in the development stages of all six-year-old kids (Ruben, Fein Vandenberg, 1983, pp. 690-698). As seen above, one of the most significant things to note about six-year-old kids id their increased aggression towards routines and independence. This does not necessarily mean that they want to leave their parents and become independent. In most cases, these kids spend most of their time in school, and away from their parents. In school, these kids participate in various activities, sometimes on their own. Sometimes, they can form groups and play together, or attend parties of their friends. Six-year-old kids also experi ence physical development.Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the motor skills and the coordination are likely to develop as compared to the rest. Additionally, this is the age when most children develop athletic abilities. You will find many of them playing or running around. The growth rate will vary form one child to another, and that is the main reason why their heights will vary to a certain extent. Experts also argue that six-year-old children always feel insecure when they are far away from the parents or their homes. They therefore crave for relieve and security either at home or from their parents. Other theories also depict that six-year-old children tend to experience an incredible learning augmentation once they enter kindergarten and start handling intricate materials. This is the period they start learning how to read, and some basic math, art, science and history solving skills will start develop (Higgins Parsons, 1983, pp.15-66). Biosocial development The biosocial development of a six-year-old child is also active at this particular age. In most cases, the child starts to develop interaction and other social skills. Friends It is quite amusing to note that these kids tend to emphasis relationships with people outside their homes, for example, teachers and pupils. Even as their aggression towards independence continues, these kids also tend to focus in other areas like forming very many fiends comprising of peers, teachers, and maybe other parents. As time goes by, they find that social interactions with the peers, friends or other people outside the family are complex. Nevertheless, this does not stop them from interacting, as they become increasingly aware on what to do with such friendships. Another positive thing to note about these kids is that at this age, they understand rules better, and majority of them want t o make sure that their friends follow the rules. For instance, if they are playing, they aggravate for organized games, which are devoid of controversy. You will find them forming teams to play each other a soccer match. Gender is also important here. Those of the same gender would always want to play together, and one kid would choose another as the â€Å"best friend†. However, it is imperative for parents to watch the biosocial developments of the six-year-old child lest they develop abnormal behaviors such as hounding, cliques, and banishing others. Otherwise, this is the age when a kid navigates from one relationship to another hoping to find security and comfort (Ruben, Fein Vandenberg, 1983, pp. 702-734). Morals and rules At six years of age, a child becomes increasingly aware of what is right and wrong. You will find many of them reporting or even summoning those who are not doing the right thing. At this age, break-ups among close friends are so common, but the goodn ess is they do not last for long, and you will find them becoming friends almost immediately.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on 6-year-old childs biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Giving, Sharing and Empathy Having acquired a good number of friends and now playing together, six-year-old kids always like sharing some of the things they own for example, snacks and toys. The truth of the matter is that there is rivalry and scuffling towards picking the best-looking toy or taking many snacks, but as we have seen above, they forget their differences easily. In fact, they can work out their conflicts without the involvement of a teacher or a parent. Perhaps one major thing to note about six-year-old kids is that they are too egotistical, and therefore they need tender support for them to learn the other side of life (Parten, 1932, pp. 243-269). Cognitive development As w e have seen above, six-year-old children have developed learning skills and therefore they are now reedy to enter school. At this age, they could be in kindergarten or in a nursery school. In school, they find a new world that is much different from that in their homes. Story telling, allotment, practical activities, and designing become so common, even as they embark on a journey of discovering what is in the books. They are now ready to learn new skills such as decoding words due to the developed phonemic awareness. Their attention span begins to lengthen, and they become familiar with intricate projects and assignments assigned to them both at schools and home (Parkhurst Asher, 1992, pp. 231-241). Reading and Writing This is the right age when children start learning how to read. In some cases, majority of the children of this age even begin to read on their own. Amazingly, some of them can even begin to write short stories (one paragraph) about their family, friends, or vacatio ns. They are able to identify some words and with time, they break their sound. Since they are still developing cognitively, with time, they become conversant with many vocabularies, and they can spell some words correctly. Children of this age can also identify punctuation marks, and apply capitalization in the sentences they construct. They also like reading simple stories about animals and monsters. Notably, after reading the story, they can re-tell it. Numbers and Math Six-year-old kids can count numbers much easier than they were in a year or two ago. Even as their cognitive skills increase, they will start mastering even higher numbers. Using sticks or other materials, they can add and subtract numbers in a given problem. They enjoy solving puzzles as well (Hagen, (1972, pp.66-78).Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Concepts Six-year-old kids are good in mastering concepts. For example, they can read the time, and tell all days of the week. By this age, they can say more about the world, name some towns, and even state the day’s weather conditions. We can say that at this age, they are able to differentiate between real and imaginary things. Psychological Development Six-year-old children are also developing psychologically. However, this type of development is in most cases characterized by contradictions. For instance, although they want to be independent, they also feel insecure and would always want to be at home with their parents. Emotional Awareness At this age, this kids experience emotions. Although they are a bit conversant on what to say, they are able to read the emotions of other people. They also remain careful in uttering some critical words so that they do not offend others. Confidence and Insecurity Since they are involved in various activities both at home and school, t hey always crave for recognition and praise. In a way, this boosts their confidence. Parents should also be instrumental in teaching them the lines of confidence. When they feel insecure, they should be encouraged, and it is paramount to mention that these kids dislike criticisms and other negative admonishments. All they need is reaffirming assurance and understanding on the part of friends and parents. Inflexibility and Preferences Six-year-old kids always prefer to do things according to their way. If this does not happen, then they feel dejected. To them some things are good and some are bad. However, parents can educate them on what is good and bad (Rollercoaster, 2012, p.1). Privacy At six years of age, children crave for some form of privacy. For instance, when they are dressing, they hide and they do not want anybody to see them. They also discourage the idea of bathing in front of their parents as well. Astonishingly, these children are also curious, as they want to discove r their gender and sex. They may also start questioning their parents the origin of babies. Reference List Hagen, J. W. (1972). Strategies for remembering. New York: Academic Press. Higgins, E.T. Parsons, J.E. (1983). Social cognition and the social life of the child:  Stages as sub-cultures. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Parkhurst, J.T. Asher, S.R. (1992).Peer rejection in middle school: Subgroup differences in behavior, loneliness, and interpersonal concerns. Developmental Psychology, 28(1), 231–241. Parten, M. (1932). Social participation among preschool children.  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27, 243–269. Rollercoaster. (2012). Stages of Development. Web. Ruben, K. H., Fein, G. G., Vandenberg, B. (1983). Socialization, personality, and  social development. (4th ed.). New York: Wiley and Sons.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Motivation for Learning Foreign Language Research Paper

Motivation for Learning Foreign Language - Research Paper Example Motivation to learn a foreign can also be defined as â€Å"complex of constructs, involving both effort and desire, as well as a favorable attitude toward learning the language at hand† (Winke, 2005, p3). In other words, the learner is encouraged to learn a foreign language because of the underlying factors such as integration into the society using the language. Motivation in learning a foreign language happens when the learners find importance in learning the language of the society they live in. The learners use the language to exchange opinions, and express their thoughts with each other and thus, increasing their urge to learn the language autonomously and continuously. Types of Motivation Motivation can be categorized into integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Integrative motivation is defined as the learner’s orientation towards learning second language (L2). Successful students in learning a foreign language tend to be those who admire people that speak the target language, like their culture and have the urge of integrating or becoming familiar with the society using the language. When an individual becomes a resident of a certain community that makes use of the target language in its daily interactions, integrative motivation becomes the key element in developing the level of language proficiency. It becomes mandatory for the individual to function socially within the community and becoming one of its members (Norris-Holt, 2001). On the other hand, instrumental motivation is characterized by the need to gain something concrete or practical from the learning of a second language. The goal of acquiring second language in instrumental motivation is utilitarian, for instance, meeting the necessities for university or school graduation, application for a job, reading technical material, attaining higher social status, translation work, or request for high pay based on the language ability. Instrumental motivation is common in in stances where the acquisition of a second language is not important for the learner’s social integration into the society (Norris-Holt, 2001). Both instrumental and integrative motivations are important elements for success but it has been found that integrative motivation sustains long-term success in the learning of a second language. Research shows that integrative motivation is important in the formal learning setting or environment. It is important to note that both instrumental and integrative motivations are not necessarily mutually limited. Learners rarely choose one type of motivation when studying a second language. Instead, the learners combine both orientations. For instance, international students living in the United States learn English for academic reasons and at the same time, they desire to become incorporated with the culture and the people of the country. Motivation is an essential factor in second language achievement. Thus, it is crucial to determine the combination and form of motivation that helps in the effective acquisition of a foreign language (Norris-Holt, 2001). Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model The model identifies factors that are interrelated in learning a second language. It is important to note that motivation to learn a second language is one variable and when combined with other factors, it influences the learner’s success. The work of Gardner focuses on foreign language acquisition in a language classroom. The model tries to interconnect four characteristics of second language

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Modernizing Rulers in the Middle East Assignment

Modernizing Rulers in the Middle East - Assignment Example Ataturk was a well-known military man. His victories and losses defined his role as a leader. While Reza Shah was in the military, the people did not gain trust in him due to the lack of victories and losses in actual battle. Since Ataturk was respected more, he could implement the changes and secularization of his country. Reza Shah had to fight for secularization and eventually back down to the pressure from the Shi’ite faction. Although it might seem that Reza Shah was not as successful as Ataturk, the two men faced different problems. Ataturk unified Turkey as Turkish. Reza Shah had to deal with many different tribes, religious leaders, and other factions. Ataturk did not face the severe opposition as Reza Shah. Ataturk did face opposition; however he managed to unite the Turkish people with a sense of nationalism. Reza Shah did not inspire the same nationalism within his people. Ataturk created a government that would not be successor based. Reza Shah’s son succeeded his father. Ataturk’s government had a solid base of elections and fundamental principles. He wanted to create a government, but one that could go on without him. Reza Shah, on the other hand, wanted to create his own personal goals of government with him as the center. That was the main difference between the two men. Ataturk created a secular government that lasted, whereas Reza Shah created one that was not as

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Soft Drink Industry Case Study Essay Example for Free

Soft Drink Industry Case Study Essay Introduction Description The soft drink industry is concentrated with the three major players, Coca-Cola Co. , PepsiCo Inc. , and Cadbury Schweppes Plc. , making up 90 percent of the $52 billion dollar a year domestic soft drink market (Santa, 1996). The soft drink market is a relatively mature market with annual growth of 4-5% causing intense rivalry among brands for market share and growth (Crouch, Steve). This paper will explore Porters Five Forces to determine whether or not this is an attractive industry and what barriers to entry (if any) exist. In addition, we will discuss several critical success factors and the future of the industry. Segments The soft drink industry has two major segments, the flavor segment and the distribution segment. The flavor segment is divided into 6 categories and is listed in table 1 by market share. The distribution segment is divided in to 7 segments: Supermarkets 31. 9%, fountain operators 26. 8%, vending machines 11. 5%, convenience stores 11. 4%, delis and drug stores 7. 9%, club stores 7. 3%, and restaurants 3. 2%. Table 1: Market Share 19901991199219931994 Cola69. 9 69. 768. 36765. 9 Lemon-Lime11. 711. 812 12. 112. 3 Pepper5. 66. 26. 97. 37. 6 Root 2. 72. 82. 32. 72. 7 Orange2. 32. 3 2. 62. 32. 3 Other7. 87. 27. 98. 69. 2 Source: Industry Surveys, 1995 Caveats The only limitations on access to information were: 1. Financial information has not yet been made available for 1996. 2. The majority of the information targets the end consumer and not the sales volume from the major soft drink producers to local distributors. 3. There was no data available to determine over capacity. Socio-Economic Relevant Governmental or Environmental Factors, etc. The Federal Government regulates the soft drink industry, like any industry where the public ingests the products. The regulations vary from ensuring clean, safe products to regulating what those products can contain. For example, the government has only approved four sweeteners that can be used in the making of a soft drink (Crouch, Steve). The soft drink industry currently has had very little impact on the environment. One environmental issue of concern is that the use of plastics adversely affects the environment due to the unusually long time it takes for it to degrade. To combat this, the major competitors have lead in the recycling effort which starting with aluminum and now plastics. The only other adverse environmental impact is the plastic straps that hold the cans together in 6-packs. These straps have been blamed for the deaths of fish and mammals in both fresh and salt water. Economic Indicators Relevant for this Industry The general growth of the economy has had a slight positive influence on the growth of the industry. The general growth in volume for the industry, 4-5 percent, has been barely keeping up with inflation and growths on margins have been even less, only 2-3 percent (Crouch, Steve). Threat of New Entrants Economies of Scale Size is a crucial factor in reducing operating expenses and being able to make strategic capital outlays. By consolidating the fragmented bottling side of the industry, operating expenses may be spread over a larger sales base, which reduces the per case cost of production. In addition, larger corporate coffers allow for capital investment in automated high speed bottling lines that increase efficiency (Industry Surveys, 1995). This trend is supported by the decline in the number of production workers employed by the industry at higher wages and fewer hours. This in conjunction with the increased value of shipments over the period shows the increase in efficiency and the economies gained by consolidation (See table 2). Table 2 General Statistics: Year CompaniesWorkersHoursWagesValue of Shipments 1982162642. 485. 27. 84 16807. 5 198341. 585. 18. 2417320. 8 198439. 8 81. 78. 5118052 1985141437. 277. 89. 119358. 2 1986 133535. 573. 59. 7720686. 8 1987119035. 471. 510. 45 22006 1988113535. 271. 810. 7823310. 3 1989102733. 4 67. 710. 9823002. 1 19909413265. 711. 4823847. 5 1991 31. 966. 811. 8525191. 1 199229. 861. 612. 46 26260. 4 199328. 659. 312. 9327224. 4 199427. 4 56. 913. 3928188. 5 199526. 254. 513. 8629152. 5 1996 2552. 114. 3230116. 5 Source: Manufacturing USA, 4th Ed. Further evidence of economies is supported by the increased return on assets from 1992-1995, as shown in table 3. Coke and Pepsi clearly show increased return on assets as the asset base increases. However, Cadbury/Schweppes does not show conclusive evidence from 95 to 96. Table 3 CADBURY/SCHWEPPES93949596 ASSETS2963100 326690035015004595000 SALES33724003724800 40296004776000 NET INCOME195600236800261900300000 Sales/Income5. 80%6. 36% 6. 50%6. 28% Income/Assets6. 60%7. 25%7. 48%6. 53% COKE ASSETS11051934120210001387300015041000 SALES 13073860139630001618100018018000 NET INCOME1664382217600025540002986000 Sales/Income12. 73%15. 58%15. 78%16. 57% Income/Assets15. 06%18. 10% 18. 41%19. 85% PEPSI ASSETS20951200237058002479200025432000 SALES 21970000250210002847240030421000 NET INCOME374300158800017520001606000 Sales/Income 1. 70%6. 35%6. 15%5. 28% Income/Assets1. 79%6. 70%7. 07%6. 31% Source: Compact Disclosure Capital Requirements The requirements within this industry are very high. Production and distribution systems are extensive and necessary to compete with the industry leaders. Table 4 shows the average capital expenditures by the three industry leaders. Table 4 Dec-95Dec-94Jan-94Jan-93 Receivables1624333 138576712266331077912 Inventories867666. 7 803666. 7777366. 7716673. 7 Plant Equip5986333 579536752466004642058 Total Assets15022667 140555001299790011655411 Source: Compact Disclosure The magnitude of these expenditures causes this to be a high barrier to entry. Proprietary Product Differences Each firm has brands that are unique in packaging and image, however any of the product differences that may develop are easily duplicated. However, secret formulas do create a difference or good will that cannot be duplicated. The best example of this is the New Coke fiasco of 1985. Coke reformulated its product due to test marketing results that showed New Coke beat Pepsi 47% to 43% and New Coke was preferred over old Coke by a 10% margin. However, Coke executives did not take into account the good will created by the old Coke name and formula. The introduction of New Coke as a replacement of Coke was met by outrage and unrelenting protest by the public. Three months from the initial launch of New Coke, management apologized to the public and reissued the old Coke formula. Test marking shows that there is only a small difference in actual product taste (52% Pepsi, 48% Coke), but the good will created by a brand can have significant proprietary differences (Dess, 1993). This is a high barrier to entry. Absolute Cost Advantage Brands do have secret formulas, which makes them unique and new entry into the industry difficult. New products must remain outside of patented zones but these differences can be slight. This leads to the conclusion that the absolute cost advantage is a low barrier within this industry. Learning Curve The shift in the manufacturing of soft drinks is gravitating toward automation due to speed and cost. However, industry technology is low and the manufacturing process is not difficult, therefore the learning curve will be short and will have a low barrier to entry. Access to Inputs All the inputs within the soft drink industry are commodity items. These include cane, beet, corn syrup, honey, concentrated fruit juice, plastic, glass, and aluminum. Access to these inputs is not a barrier to enter the industry. Proprietary Low Cost Production The process of manufacturing soft drinks is not a proprietary process. The methods used in the process are relatively standard within the industry and the knowledge needed to begin production can easily be acquired. This is not a barrier to entry. Brand Identity This is a very strong force within the industry. It takes a long time to develop a brand that has recognition and customer loyalty. Brand loyalty is indeed the HOLY GRAIL to American consumer product companies. (Industry Surveys, 1995) A well recognized brand will foster customer loyalty and creates the opportunity for real market share growth, price flexibility, and above average profitability (Industry Surveys, 1995). Therefore this is a high barrier to entry. Access to Distribution Distribution is a critical success factor within the industry. Without the network, the product cannot get to the final consumer. The most successful soft drink producers are aggressively expanding their distribution channels and consolidating the independent bottling and distribution centers. From 1978 to the present, the number of Coca-Cola bottlers decreased from 370 to 120 (Industry Surveys, 1995). In addition, 31. 9% of the soft drink business is in supermarkets, where acquiring shelf space is very difficult (Santa, 1996). This is a high barrier to entry. Expected Retaliation Market share within the industry is critical; therefore any attempt to take market share from the leaders will result in significant retaliation. The soft drink industry is a moderately mature market with slow single digit growth (Industry Surveys, 1995). Projected growth rates are 4-5% in sales volume and 2- 3% in margin (Crouch, Steve). Therefore, growth in market share is obtained by stealing share from rivals causing retaliation to be high in defense of current market position. This is a high barrier to entry. Conclusion To be successful on a large scale, the high capital requirements for manufacturing, distribution, and marketing are high barriers to entry. Therefore the threat of new entrants is low making this an attractive industry. Suppliers Supplier concentration Supplier concentration is low due to the fact that the main ingredients are sugar (cane and beet), water, various chemicals, and aluminum cans, plastic and glass bottles. There are many places to get sugar and ingredients for soft drinks because they are commodity items. The containers (aluminum cans, bottles etc.) make up 36 percent of all the inputs that the industry uses. Other supplies like sugars, syrups and extracts account for 23 percent of the inputs (Manufacturing USA). There are five major suppliers of glass bottles. Altrista Corp. , Anchor Glass Container, Glassware of Chile, Owens Illinois, and Vistro Sa are the major makers of glass bottles (Compact Disclosure). This is a fair amount of suppliers considering that only five percent of soft drink sales are in glass bottles. There are even more suppliers of plastic bottles. This is good because 43% of all sales are from plastic bottles (Prince, 1996). All this makes the concentration for glass and plastic suppliers moderate. The aluminum can industry is even older and more established than the plastic industry. Reynolds Metal Products, American National Can Company and Metal Container Corp. are the main suppliers of aluminum cans. 50. 6% of total soft drink sales are packaged in aluminum cans (Prince, 1996). Since the aluminum industry is older and more established, these are likely to be the only manufacturers for a while. Even though the concentration of aluminum producers are low there are only three major players in the industry, Coke, Pepsi, and Cadbury. These three account for nearly 90% of domestic soft drink sales (Dawson, 1996). This makes the balance of power slightly favor the suppliers of aluminum cans, even though the number of producers and buyers are equal (3). Syrups and extracts account for 16. 7% of input costs to the soft drink industry (Manufacturing USA, Fourth Ed. ). Even though these are a small percentage of inputs, all the major soft drink companies own companies that produce flavoring extracts and syrups (Industry Surveys, 1995). This is probably due to the fact that they all have secret formulas and this is how they protect the secret. Coke, Pepsi, and Dr. Pepper all have secret formulas. This makes the concentration of suppliers for extracts very low but they are owned by the soft drink industry. This backward integration by the major players makes the power question moot. Suppliers do have limited power over the soft drink industry. The concentration of suppliers remains relatively low, which would seem to give the supplier power. The shear mass and volume that the industry buys negates that effect and balances, if not tips it back toward the soft drink industry. Presence of Substitute Inputs There is not a lot of variety in inputs. The biggest substitute input was when the industry switched from aluminum cans to plastic bottles. This made the glass industry almost shake out completely. The next big substitute input was for sugar. Since people were demanding more and more ways to lose weight and consume fewer calories, the diet soft drink exploded in sales. This demand made the soft drink industry find an alternative to sugar to sweeten their product. This substitute turned out to be Nutrasweet non-sugar sweetener. This was found to reduce the calories and retain the taste of their respective products. Other sweeteners, like molasses, do not work because they change the flavor of the product. Most of these substitute inputs had already taken place so they become less relevant to the industry as time marched on. Substitute inputs usually do not become important until the customer or market changes dramatically. This happens when new studies come out from the government about how harmful something is. This was the case when scientists came out with the study that stated that saccharin was harmful to rats. The industry had to respond by reducing its use of saccharin and look for a substitute. At this time, the industry found Nutrasweet to be a reasonable substitute for saccharin, which was used more heavily in diet drinks. All in all, there are a lot of substitutes for packaging but not for sweeteners because these sweeteners must have government approval (Crouch, Steve). This makes suppliers have power over the industry as seen in the almost overnight empire of Nutrasweet. This will most likely change drastically when Aspirtain (Nutrasweet) loses its patent in a few years. Differentiation of InputsÃ'Ž Sugar is commonly available while Nutrasweet is patented. There is no differentiation for sugar and only one choice in Nutrasweet. As far as the other chemicals and inputs, they are commodity items, and it does not matter who supplies them. This makes suppliers have little power over the soft drink industry. Importance of Volume to Supplier The soft drink industry buys a large portion of the Nutrasweet market but their percentage of purchases are falling as other products begin to use it. Sugar is bought but not in the volume that the grocery store or other industries do. The aluminum can, plastic bottles and glass bottles (less now) are all pretty much dependent on the soft drink industry for their livelihood. This makes the supplier have pretty much no power over the industry. Impact of Input on Cost or Differentiation Since the inputs are basic elements there is no differentiation and therefore no impact on the final product for using different inputs. If the price of the input changed, it would dramatically change the price of the product as the aluminum cartel did in 1994. Since the major inputs are commodity items, the prices can change dramatically due to environmental forces. If the sugar industry suffers a loss due to weather or because of political unrest (like in Cuba), then the prices go up and the soft drink industry is usually left absorbing them. The soft drink industry can not, in all cases, simply pass along the price increase. Customers and distributors are more price sensitive than ever. This makes the supplier have a fair amount of bargaining power over the industry. Threat of Backward or Forward Integration With the current climate of sticking to the core of the company, there is little threat of backward integration into the suppliers industry. This is after the fact that they already have integrated into the extracts to protect their secrets. The integration into the extract-producing segment of the suppliers will be the extent of the backward integration. The suppliers do not have the capital required to forward integrate into the soft drink industry. This makes the industry attractive for investment. Access to Capital The soft drink industry is very profitable and therefore looked upon favorably by financial institutions. This includes the stock market, direct investors (bondholders), and banks. Currently the operating margins for the industry have grown from 17. 9% in 1992 to 19. 5% in 1996. The projected operating margins are projected to grow to 20. 5% from 1997 to 2001 (Value Line 1996). The profit margins and demand are increasing for the soft drink industry (Industry Surveys, 1995). What this means is that capital is available for expansion or upgrading, if additional capital is required. This is favorable to the industry. Access to Labor The industry is not highly technical except for chemical engineering. This means that the demands for skilled labor are not very high. Which means that the soft drink industry will not have trouble finding labor. There are no established labor unions. The average labor cost is no more than in any other industry. The average hourly wage is $11. 85 per hour, which just about the same as all manufacturing firms of $11. 49 (Manufacturing USA). Summary of Suppliers When you sum up the different aspects of the suppliers you come to the quick conclusion that the power is definitely in the hands of the soft drink industry. This makes the industry very attractive for investment and for the companies already in the industry from the supply aspect. This means that it is attractive to new entrants as well. Buyers Buyer Concentration versus Industry Concentration The buyers for the soft drink industry are members of a large network of bottlers and distributors that represent the major soft drink companies at the local level. Distributors purchase the finished, packaged product from the soft drink companies while bottlers purchase the major ingredients. With the consolidation that has occurred within the industry, there is little difference between the two. Distributors are assigned to represent a specific geographic area, for example a town or a county. In turn, these distributors are responsible for distributing the product to the retailers who sell the products to the end consumer. In recent years, the national companies have been purchasing independent bottlers in an effort to consolidate the business and gain some distribution economies of scale (Thompson and Strickland, 1993). Buyer Volume The contractual agreements, which are present in this industry, dictate that the major soft drink companies will sell their products to the distributors. Therefore, buyer volume is not a factor for this industry. Buyer Switching CostÃ'Ž Independent bottlers have contractual agreements to represent that company within a certain area. Switching costs would include establishing new relationships with other companies to represent and the legal costs associated with distributors being released from the contract. Buyer Information Distributors are very informed about the product that they are distributing. Information flows freely between the soft drink Companies and the local distributors and down to the retailers. There are many co-operative promotions where distributors and soft drink companies collaborate on price and advertising campaigns (Crouch, Steve). For example, major soft drink firms will send a regular report out to its distributors describing upcoming promotional events where the cost will be shared between the two companies. For promotions that fall outside of this report, the distributors will have to coordinate that sponsorship with the soft drink company. Threat of Backward Integration It is doubtful that local distributors will move into the actual production process of soft drinks. Distributors specialize in the transportation and promotion of the product that they rely on the carbonated beverage companies produce. However, major retailers; for example Wal-Mart and Harris Teeter have begun distributing their own private label brands of soft drinks. Wal-Mart now offers Sams Choice and Harris Teeter offers Presidents Choice at a significantly lower price. These private label competitors will not provide the variety of packaging alternatives, which make the national leaders so successful (PepsiCo 1995 Annual Report). For example, Pepsi offers 12-ounce cans, 20 ounce bottles, 1 liter bottles, six packs, twelve packs, cases and The Cube 24 can boxes. Pull Through Pull through is not a factor from the independent bottlers perspective. These bottlers have a franchise agreement to represent a major carbonated beverage company on the local level. These distributors are legally bound to represent these companies and therefore cannot choose not to promote certain types of beverages. Brand Identity of Buyers Brand identity of buyers is not relevant to the distributors because of the contractual relationship that exists where distributors represent the soft drink companies. The distributors have an exclusive contractual agreement to represent that soft drink brand. Price Sensitivity Distributors are not highly price sensitive buyers. Independent bottlers are on a national contract so all distributors pay the same price for the same products. Price to Total Purchases Soft drinks are the single product that the distributors are concerned with so price is very important to them. Soft drink companies rely on these distributors to represent them on the local level, so it is important to maintain a healthy relationship. Impact on Quality and Performance All three of the leading carbonated beverage producers, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, and Cadbury Schweppes believe that their buyers (distributors) are an important step in taking their products to the end consumer. The service, which their distributors provide to the retailers, makes a difference to the retailers who sell the product to the end consumer. The actions of that distributor reflect on the soft drink company so if the distributor does not provide the level of service that retailer or restaurant desires, it may harm the companys image. Substitute Products Relative price/performance relationship of Substitutes The carbonated beverage industry provides a non-alcoholic means of satisfying an individuals desire to quench their thirst. Traditionally, coffee and tea would be considered substitute products. In recent years, carbonated beverages have seen the emergence of many new substitute products that wish to reduce soft drinks market share. The soft drink market has been traditionally competitive, without the added friction from ready to drink tea, shelf stable juice, sports drinks and still-water competitors also. (Gleason, 1996) Leaders in these emerging segments include Quaker Oats, with their Snapple and Gatorade products, Perrier, and Arizona Iced Teas. In other words, Pepsi isnt Cokes biggest competition, Tap water is. (Gleason, 1996). Generally speaking, soft drinks are less expensive to the consumer than these substitute products. Buyer Propensity to Substitute Buyer propensity to substitute is low due to the contractual relationships between the soft drink companies and the distributors. Rivalry Degree of Concentration and Balance among Competitors Three main competitors: Pepsico, Coca-Cola, and Dr. Pepper/Cadbury control the Soft Drink industry. Their combined total sales revenues account for 90 percent of the entire domestic market. This market dominance makes the industry a fiercely competitive and dynamic business environment to operate in. The single market leader is Coca-Cola with a 42 percent market share and over $18 billion in sales worldwide. PepsiCo maintains a 31 percent market share with $10. 5 billion in sales worldwide. The smallest of the three leaders is Dr. Pepper/Cadbury, which holds roughly 16 percent of the market. Cokes consistent dominance of both Pepsi and Dr. Pepper/Cadbury has caused Coke to become a household name when referring to soft drinks. As far as balance among competitors is concerned, PepsiCo is a much larger company than Coke and Dr. Pepper/Cadbury combined. The reason being that PepsiCo also owns companies in the snack and food industries (Frito-Lay, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and KFC). With a work force of 480,000 people, PepsiCo is the worlds third largest employer behind General Motors and Wal-Mart. This has not lead to a more profitable soft drink business, nor has it helped PepsiCo use its size to steal market share from Coke or Dr. Pepper/Cadbury. Diversity among Competitors Though Coca-Cola dominates the industry in sales volume and market share, it does not dominate when it comes to innovative marketing and business strategy efforts. For instance, PepsiCo generates 71 percent of its revenues from the U. S. , while Coca-Cola derives 71 percent of its from international markets. Similarly, PepsiCo only gets 41 percent of its total revenues from soft drinks. The remaining 59 percent come from its snack and food business. Coke on the other hand gets all of its revenues from its soft drinks. Clearly both of the industry leaders have different strategies as far as revenue generation is concerned. However, as far as their product lines are concerned they are very similar and operate parallel to one another. Pepsi and Coca-Cola both have lemon-lime, citrus, root beer, and cola flavors. Dr. Pepper/Cadbury does not have as similar a product line to that of Pepsico and Coca-Cola. It manufactures Dr. Pepper (a unique spicy cola drink), ginger ale, tonic water, and carbonated water under its Schweppes and Canada Dry brands. Coke does have an answer to Dr. Pepper in its Mr. Pibb, but only holds a . 4 percent market share compared to Dr. Peppers 6 percent market share. The relatively low level of diversity makes the soft drink industry unattractive for investment. Industry Growth Rate Although new product lines have come into the beverage industry over the past two to three years, the soft drink segment has held and grown its share steadily. The onslaught of the sport drink and bottled tea have proven to be a passing fad that has gained little if no long term market share from soft drinks. Growth figures for the soft drink industry have been very steady since 1993, and are projected to continue to be so into the last part of the twentieth century. As can be seen in Figure 1, volatility was somewhat prevalent in the 1980s but has since lessened and leveled off (Valueline, 1996). Figure 1 Year87-8888-8989-9090-9191- 9292-9393-9494-95 Growth5. 7%5. 2%2% 3%2. 9%4%4. 4%4% Over the past ten years soft drinks have gained 5 percent of total beverage sales, putting them over the 25 percent share level for all beverage sales. As for new and emerging markets, both Coke and Pepsi are attacking the international environment. Coca-Cola generates 80 percent of its revenues abroad, and Pepsi is attempting but failing to put more emphasis there as well. Pepsi is losing customers to Coke in every major foreign territory. The company has always struggled overseas, but in the past few months it has lost key strongholds in Russia and Venezuela to Coke (Sellers, 1996). Because of the consistent growth of both the domestic and foreign markets, the soft drink industry is attractive for investment. Fixed Costs The SP Industry Survey has shown the soft drink industry profit margin to be on a steady incline over the past fifteen years. Levels in 1980 were near 14%, while as of year-end 1995 were over 20% and expected to flatten a bit. This flattening effect may be an indication that fixed costs are on the rise due to expansionÃ'Ž